Guide Ever Darker

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From totalitarianism to autocracy

These developments might give the impression of more openness, but in fact there is no desire for real change. The information available to the foreign media is still meticulously controlled and the population is kept in ignorance and terror. Listening to a radio station based outside the country can lead straight to a concentration camp. North Korea continues to be a Cold War-era dictatorship. Turkmenistan, another hangover from a previous era, has held on to its th position. The state has total control over the media and continues to intensify its harassment of the few remaining correspondents of foreign-based independent media, who are forced to work clandestinely.

The government has continued its campaign to remove all satellite dishes , denying the public of one of its last chances to access freely reported news.

Luxembourg Herald

Former Soviet republics have produced many of the dictators found on the Index. But that is not all they have in common. They are all also totalitarian communist regimes in which journalists take their orders from the Party and, in China especially, citizen journalists and bloggers are prosecuted and jailed if they dare to offer the least criticism of the Party-State. The perpetuation of a Soviet-style communist regime is the reason why Cuba down 2 at rd is more hostile to media freedom than anywhere else in the Western Hemisphere.

Both Omar al-Bashir in Sudan th and Teodoro Obiang Nguema in Equatorial Guinea down 3 at st constantly crack down on the least dissent in order to hold on to the power they acquired by force in the last century. After steadily depriving his country of independent and opposition media, the iron-fisted Guelleh found it fairly easy to amend the constitution in order to run for a fourth consecutive term. Defense of religion, morality, and the established order are the grounds usually given in the Middle East for violating media freedom. Prison conditions are so bad that many of them go on hunger strike in protest.

The Iranian regime imposes inhuman and medieval punishments such as flogging. Dictatorships and other totalitarian regimes obviously throttle media freedom and pluralism, but wars and latent conflicts are also devastating and can quickly drive a country down into the lower regions of the Index and keep it there for years. Nothing has been done to protect journalists from the insane barbarity of its dictator and fanaticized Jihadi armed groups that stop at nothing. Journalists are also caught in the crossfire in Yemen th. They also risk being killed in air strikes by the Saudi-led Arab coalition.

Chaos is equally dangerous for journalists in Libya down 1 at rd , which is torn by armed clashes between rival factions and is on the verge of imploding. Three more journalists died in covering fighting in Sirte and Benghazi.

Darker Than Vantablack—Absorbs 99.9923% of Light

Although the toll of dead and missing has fallen, journalists still face endless threats because crimes of violence against them go unpunished. So too in Somalia th , where the fragility of the state contributes to the dangers for journalists , who are the victims not only of shootings and bombings by Al-Shebaab, but also persecution by what remains of governmental authority. It is clear from the Index that the frequency of media freedom violations is on the rise see our release entitled Tipping point?

For example, the Democratic Republic of Congo — headed by Joseph Kabila, another press freedom predator — has been falling steadily since , when it was ranked th in the first Index published by RSF. Turkey is one of the most alarming cases in the Index. Ranked th after falling four more places in the past year, it has fallen a total of 57 places in the past 12 years. The coup attempt in July swept aside the last restraints on the government in its war against critical media.

The ensuing state of emergency has allowed the authorities to disband dozens of media outlets at the stroke of pen month after month, reducing pluralism to a handful of low-circulation newspapers. Mexico is another country that stood out last year. It is riddled by corruption and violent organized crime, especially at the local level. In terms of level of risk for journalists, Mexico is nowadays only just behind Syria and Afghanistan, which is down at th. Skip to main content.

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Book your free demo and find out what else Mya 4 from Radleys can do. The Redemption of Vanity, is a work of art by Massachusetts Institute of Technology artist in residence Diemut Strebe that has been realised together with Brian Wardle, a professor of aeronautics and astronautics, whose team created the ultra-black material. A new material that is 10 times blacker than anything else previously reported has been created from carbon nanotubes and aluminium foil. Kehang Cui and Brian Wardle from the Massachusetts Institute of Technology created the material while the pair were searching for new ways to grow carbon nanotubes CNTs on electrically conducting materials to improve their electrical and thermal properties.

One of the conductors they tested was aluminium, but they encountered problems with the insulating oxide that built up on the surface of the metal when in air.

To get around the issue, they treated the aluminium with salt water, depositing chloride ions on the surface that ate away the oxide. The resulting surface was then used to grow vertically aligned CNTs, creating a material with greatly enhanced electrical and thermal properties. However, the pair also noticed how black the material was, and decided to test its optical reflectance.

Soars to ever darker height Beach Towel

They found that their material absorbed The exact mechanism by which the surface absorbs light is unclear, but the team have theorised it involves the vertical CNTs trapping the vast majority of the light and converting it into heat. As only a very small fraction of light is reflected, the material appears perfectly black to our eyes. When coated with the foil, the features of the cut diamond become indistinguishable from the overall shape and, against a dark background, the diamond becomes completely invisible.

Beyond artistic endeavours, the material may be useful as optical blinders for space telescopes to cut unwanted glare. Interfaces , , DOI: Space agency creates blackest material ever to suppress stray light that can interfere with orbiting telescopes.

Urban Dictionary: dark

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